Hypodipsic hypernatremia in eight dogs

Chapman, P S and Petrus, D and Neiger, R (2009) Hypodipsic hypernatremia in eight dogs. TIERAERZTLICHE PRAXIS AUSGABE KLEINTIERE HEIMTIERE, 37 (1). pp. 15-20.

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Abstract

The study was conducted to describe the clinical and clinicopathological features of hypodipsic hypernatraemia in a population of dogs. The case records of eight dogs with hypodipsic hypernatraemia examined between March 1997 and August 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. Results revealed that the median age at the time of presentation was 8-month-old (range 4-37-month-old). Four of the dogs were Staffordshire bull terriers, and the most clinical signs observed were lethargy and altered mentation. The median of the maximum recorded sodium concentrations for each dog was 196 mmol/litre (range 175-204 mmol/litre). Abnormalities were detected on magnetic resonance imaging in two of four dogs (hydrocephalus and absent corpus callosum). Seven dogs were hospitalized and treated with intravenous fluids for a median of seven days (range 1-15 days) and one was managed with oral fluids alone. Two dogs were euthanized while hospitalized (one due to pneumonia and one due to cerebral edema) and five were subsequently discharged and managed at home with the addition of water to their food. Hypodipsia is an uncommon but important differential diagnosis for severe hypernatraemia. The aetiology of the cases in this study is likely to be a dysfunction of the hypothalamic osmoreceptors.

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