The chemokine CXCL16 can rescue the defects in insulin signaling and sensitivity caused by palmitate in C2C12 myotubes

Bitsi, S (2020) The chemokine CXCL16 can rescue the defects in insulin signaling and sensitivity caused by palmitate in C2C12 myotubes. Cytokine, 133. p. 155154. ISSN 10434666

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155154

Abstract

In obesity, macrophages infiltrate peripheral tissues and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines that impact local insulin sensitivity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the saturated fatty acid (FA) palmitate polarise macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype in vitro and indirectly cause insulin resistance (IR) in myotubes. In contrast, unsaturated FAs confer an anti-inflammatory phenotype and counteract the actions of palmitate. To explore paracrine mechanisms of interest, J774 macrophages were exposed to palmitate ± palmitoleate or control medium and the conditioned media generated were screened using a cytokine array. Of the 62 cytokines examined, 8 were significantly differentially expressed following FA treatments. Notably, CXCL16 secretion was downregulated by palmitate. In follow-up experiments using ELISAs, this downregulation was confirmed and reversed by simultaneous addition of palmitoleate or oleate, while LPS also diminished CXCL16 secretion. To dissect potential effects of CXCL16, C2C12 myotubes were treated with palmitate to induce IR, recombinant soluble CXCL16 (sCXCL16), combined treatment, or control medium. Palmitate caused the expected reduction of insulin-stimulated Akt activation and glycogen synthesis, whereas simultaneous treatment with sCXCL16 attenuated these effects. These data indicate a putative role for CXCL16 in preservation of Akt activation and insulin signaling in the context of chronic low-grade inflammation in skeletal muscle.

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