Depth of concussion in cattle shot by penetrating captive bolt

Gregory, N G and Lee, C J and Widdicombe, JP (2007) Depth of concussion in cattle shot by penetrating captive bolt. MEAT SCIENCE, 77 (4). pp. 499-503.

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The prevalence of shallow depth of concussion following captive bolt shooting was assessed in 1608 cattle at an abattoir. Depth of concussion was determined in each animal from physical collapse, presence or absence of corneal reflex, normal rhythmic breathing, eyeball rotation, and whether the animal was re-shot. The presence of nystagmus and the absence of tongue protrusion were also monitored as potential indicators of a shallow depth of concussion, and simultaneous noise measurements assessed whether loudness of gun discharge was linked to concussion depth. The prevalence of a shallow depth of concussion was 8% for all cattle and 15%, for young bulls. Nystagmus was associated with other indicators of a shallow depth of concussion. Absence of tongue protrusion was not associated with depth of concussion, but could serve as a useful indicator of jaw relaxation and insensibility following exsanguination. Soft-sounding shots (<= 111 dB) when using 4.5 gr cartridges were associated with shallow depth of concussion, (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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