Incidence and risk factors for neurological signs after attenuation of a single congenital portosystemic shunt in 50 cats.

Strickland, Rhiannon and Tivers, Michael S and Fowkes, Robert C and Lipscomb, Victoria J (2020) Incidence and risk factors for neurological signs after attenuation of a single congenital portosystemic shunt in 50 cats. Veterinary Surgery. ISSN 0161-3499 (In Press)

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence, outcome, and risk factors for postattenuation neurological signs (PANS) in cats treated for single congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS). STUDY DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS Cats (n = 50) with a single CPSS. METHODS Medical records of cats treated by surgical attenuation of a single CPSS between 2003 and 2017 were reviewed for signalment, surgical technique, preoperative management and postoperative clinical outcomes. Binary logistic regression was performed to investigate risk factors for occurrence of PANS and seizures. RESULTS Congenital portosystemic shunts in 50 cats included 40 extrahepatic and 10 intrahepatic shunts. Postattenuation neurological signs were recorded in 31 (62%) cats and graded as 1 in 10 cats, 2 in nine cats, and 3 in 12 cats. Postattenuation neurological signs included seizures in 11 cats. Five of 31 cats with PANS did not survive to discharge. No association was detected between PANS or seizures and the type of CPSS (intrahepatic or extrahepatic), degree of attenuation, age, or the use of perioperative levetiracetam or hepatic encephalopathy immediately preoperatively. Osmolality at a median 24 hours postoperatively was lower in cats with PANS (P < .049, Wald 3.867, odds ratio [Exp(B)] 0.855, CI 0.732-0.999). CONCLUSION Postattenuation neurological signs are common complications in cats treated for CPSS. Preoperative levetiracetam did not prevent the occurrence of PANS or seizures. The only risk factor for PANS detected was lower postoperative Osmolality in cats with PANS at 24 hours. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Postattenuation neurological signs including seizures occur frequently in cats undergoing surgical attenuation of a CPSS. Preoperative levetiracetam did not protect against the development of PANS.

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