Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Modeling of Torasemide and Furosemide After Oral Repeated Administration in Healthy Dogs

Pelligand, L and Guillot, E and Geneteau, A and Guyonnet, J and Magnier, R and Elliott, J and Peyrou, M and Jacobs, M (2020) Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Modeling of Torasemide and Furosemide After Oral Repeated Administration in Healthy Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7. ISSN 2297-1769

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Abstract

Torasemide is a loop diuretic licensed in dogs for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study was to define an optimally effective dosage regimen based on preclinical data. In a first study, 5 dogs received once-daily oral torasemide (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. A second study compared once-daily oral torasemide (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mg/kg/day) to twice-daily furosemide (1, 2, 4, 8 mg/kg/day). For all doses of the second study, 11 dogs received a first day of treatment, followed by a 3 day washout and resumed daily treatment for 10 days (until Day 14). Blood and urine were collected to measure urinary torasemide excretion and plasma torasemide concentrations and daily diuresis and natriuresis. Torasemide PK was linear. After rapid absorption (Tmax 0.5–1 h), 61% of the bioavailable torasemide was eliminated unchanged in urine. Diuresis and natriuresis observed with torasemide were similar to the ones obtained after furosemide (daily dose-ratios: 1/20 to 1/10). The average diuresis increased from baseline (220 ± 53 mL/day for 10 kg dogs) to 730 ±120 mL after the first torasemide administration and up to 1150 ± 252 mL after 10 administrations at the highest dose. At higher doses (≥0.3 mg/kg/day), daily diureses after 10 diuretic treatment-days were higher than Day 1 and variable between dogs; in contrast, diureses remained constant over time and less variable for doses up to 0.2 mg/kg/day. Natriuresis peaked after the first day and decreased dramatically after the 2nd treatment-day then stabilized to a value close to baseline, except for 0.4 mg/kg/day. Urinary torasemide excretion predicted pharmacodynamics better than plasma concentrations. The decrease in natriuresis observed was successfully modeled using a resistance mechanism; this is likely due to a reabsorption of sodium which did not seem however to affect the volume of urine excreted. For a daily target diuresis of 460 mL/dog/day in severe pulmonary oedema (net fluid loss 240 mL/dog/day), a computed dose of 0.26 mg/kg/day (3.5 mg/kg/day furosemide-equivalent) was selected for clinical studies. Due to high inter-individual variability in diureses at doses ≥0.3 mg/kg, higher doses should be limited to 3–5 days to avoid supra-clinical effects in high responders.