Genetic characterization of Carnivore Parvoviruses in Spanish wildlife reveals domestic dog and cat-related sequences

Calatayud, O and Esperón, F and Velarde, R and Oleaga, Á and Llaneza, L and Ribas, A and Negre, N and De La Torre, A and Rodríguez, A and Millán, J (2019) Genetic characterization of Carnivore Parvoviruses in Spanish wildlife reveals domestic dog and cat-related sequences. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. ISSN 1865-1674

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Abstract

The impact of carnivore parvovirus infection on wild populations is not yet understood; disease signs are mainly developed in pups and assessing the health of litters in wild carnivores has big limitations. This study aims to shed light on the virus dynamics among wild carnivores thanks to the analysis of 213 samples collected between 1994 and 2013 in wild ecosystems from Spain. We determined the presence of carnivore parvovirus DNA by real‐time PCR and sequenced the vp2 gen from 22 positive samples to characterize the strains and to perform phylogenetic analysis. The presence of carnivore parvovirus DNA was confirmed in 18% of the samples, with a higher prevalence detected in wolves (Canis lupus signatus, 70%). Fourteen sequences belonging to nine wolves, three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), a common genet (Genetta genetta) and a European wildcat (Felis silvestris) were classified as canine parvovirus 2c (CPV‐2c); five sequences from three wolves, a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and a stone marten (Martes foina) as CPV‐2b; and three sequences from a badger, a genet and a stone marten as feline parvovirus (FPV). This was the first report of a wildcat infected with a canine strain. Sequences described in this study were identical or very close related to others previously found in domestic carnivores from distant countries, suggesting that cross‐species transmission takes place and that the parvovirus epidemiology in Spain, as elsewhere, could be influenced by global factors.

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