Canine Respiratory Coronavirus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Human Coronavirus OC43: Receptors and Attachment Factors

Szczepanski, A and Owczarek, K and Bzowska, M and Gula, K and Drebot, I and Ochman, M and Maksym, B and Rajfur, Z and Mitchell, J A and Pyrc, K (2019) Canine Respiratory Coronavirus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Human Coronavirus OC43: Receptors and Attachment Factors. Viruses, 11 (4). p. 328.

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Abstract

Despite high similarity of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), bovine coronavirus, (BCoV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), these viruses differ in species specificity. For years it was believed that they share receptor specificity, utilizing sialic acids for cell surface attachment, internalization, and entry. Interestingly, careful literature analysis shows that viruses indeed bind to the cell surface via sialic acids, but there is no solid data that these moieties mediate virus entry. In our study, using a number of techniques, we showed that all three viruses are indeed able to bind to sialic acids to a different extent, but these molecules render the cells permissive only for the clinical strain of HCoV-OC43, while for others they serve only as attachment receptors. CRCoV and BCoV appear to employ human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-1) as the entry receptor. Furthermore, we identified heparan sulfate as an alternative attachment factor, but this may be related to the cell culture adaptation, as in ex vivo conditions, it does not seem to play a significant role. Summarizing, we delineated early events during CRCoV, BCoV, and HCoV-OC43 entry and systematically studied the attachment and entry receptor utilized by these viruses.