Like a hole in the head: Development, evolutionary implications and diseases of the cranial foramina

McGonnell, I M and Akbareian, S E (2018) Like a hole in the head: Development, evolutionary implications and diseases of the cranial foramina. SEMINARS IN CELL & DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY.

[img]
Preview
Text
11846.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

Cranial foramina are holes in the skull through which nerves and blood vessels pass to reach both deep and superficial tissues. They are often overlooked in the literature; however they are complex structures that form within the developing cranial bones during embryogenesis and then remain open throughout life, despite the bone surrounding them undergoing constant remodelling. They are invaluable in assigning phylogeny in the fossil record and their size has been used, by some, to imply function of the nerve and/or blood vessel that they contained. Despite this, there are very few studies investigating the development or normal function of the cranial foramina. In this review, we will discuss the development of the cranial foramina and their subsequent maintenance, highlighting key gaps in the knowledge. We consider whether functional interpretations can be made from fossil material given a lack of knowledge regarding their contents and maintenance. Finally, we examine the significant role of malformation of foramina in congenital diseases such as craniosynostosis.

Actions (Repository Editors)

View Item View Item