Recombinant anticoccidial vaccines - a cup half full?

Blake, D P and Pastor-Fernández, I and Nolan, M J and Tomley, F M (2017) Recombinant anticoccidial vaccines - a cup half full? Infections, Genetics and Evolution, 55. pp. 358-365. ISSN 1567-1348

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Eimeria species parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis, most notably in chickens. The occurrence of coccidiosis is currently controlled through a combination of good husbandry, chemoprophylaxis and/or live parasite vaccination; however, scalable, cost-effective subunit or recombinant vaccines are required. Many antigens have been proposed for use in novel anticoccidial vaccines, supported by the capacity to reduce disease severity or parasite replication, increase body weight gain in the face of challenge or improve feed conversion under experimental conditions, but none has reached commercial development. Nonetheless, the protection against challenge induced by some antigens has been within the lower range described for the ionophores against susceptible isolates or current live vaccines prior to oocyst recycling. With such levels of efficacy it may be that combinations of anticoccidial antigens already described are sufficient for development as novel multi-valent vaccines, pending identification of optimal delivery systems. Selection of the best antigens to be included in such vaccines can be informed by knowledge defining the natural occurrence of specific antigenic diversity, with relevance to the risk of immediate vaccine breakthrough, and the rate at which parasite genomes can evolve new diversity. For Eimeria, such data are now becoming available for antigens such as apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and immune mapped protein 1 (IMP1) and more are anticipated as high-capacity, high-throughput sequencing technologies become increasingly accessible.

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