Variation matters: TLR structure and species-specific pathogen recognition

Werling, D and Jann, O C and Offord, V and Glass, E J and Coffey, T J (2009) Variation matters: TLR structure and species-specific pathogen recognition. Trends in Immunology, 30 (3). pp. 124-130.

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Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that are an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Many vaccines incorporate ligands for TLRs as an adjuvant and are developed in rodent models, with the resulting data transferred to other species. Vaccine features can be improved markedly by emphasizing the biological relevance when evaluating other animal models for host-pathogen interaction and by taking greater advantage of the unique experimental opportunities that are offered by large animal, non-rodent models. Here, we aim to summarize our current knowledge of species-specific TLR responses and briefly discuss that vaccine efficacy in relevant host species might be improved by considering the species-specific TLR responses.