Sequence analysis of divergent canine coronavirus strains present in a UK dog population

Erles, K and Brownlie, J (2009) Sequence analysis of divergent canine coronavirus strains present in a UK dog population. VIRUS RESEARCH, 141 (1). pp. 21-25.

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Abstract

Forty faecal samples were tested by RT-PCR using coronavirus consensus primers to determine faecal shedding of canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) in a dog population housed at a rescue centre. Seven samples were positive for CCoV while all samples were negative for CRCoV. Sequence analysis of five CCoV strains showed a high similarity with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) at the N-terminus of the spike protein. All strains contained an open reading frame for the nonstructural protein 7b, which is not present in TGEV, indicating that the strains were related to the previously described CCoV strain UCD-1. Two samples contained CCoV strains with 5' spike sequences most similar to type II CCoV while one sample was found to contain type I CCoV. Primers directed to the N gene allowed specific detection of all CCoV strains analysed in this study. This investigation shows that CCoV strains containing spike proteins similar to TGEV are present in the UK dog population. PCR primers directed to conserved regions of the CCoV genome are recommended for detection of CCoV in clinical samples due to high genetic variability. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.