Clinical signs, imaging findings, and outcome in twelve cats with internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia

Hamzianpour, N and Lam, R and Tetas, R and Beltran, E (2018) Clinical signs, imaging findings, and outcome in twelve cats with internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia. VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGY, 21 (4). pp. 382-390.

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Abstract

Objective To retrospectively evaluate the clinical signs, imaging ?ndings, and outcomeof feline internal opht halmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia.Procedure Medical records were reviewed from 2008 to 2015. Inclusion criteriaincluded cats that presented with internal ophthalmoparesis/o phthalmoplegia, under-went diagnostic imaging, and had follow-up information available.Results Twelvecases of felineinternal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia wereidenti?ed.Nine cats were unilaterally affected, and three cats were bilaterally affected. Affectedcats had a median age of 10.54 years (range 5.75 to 13.17), and both sexes of var yingbreeds were affected (nine males; three females). Clinical signs including abnormalmental status (n = 9; 75%) and additional neurologic abnor malities ( n = 10; 83%)were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or compute d tomography (MRI/CT)of the head were performed in ten cats, revealing a mass lesion in all cases with vary-ing locations. Multicentric lymphoma was diagnosed in two cats via abdominal ultra-sound and cytology. All twelve cats were euthanized due to deterioration of clinicalsigns and/or quality-of-life concern s. Median time from diagnosis to euthana sia was3.5 days (range 0 to 80 days).Conclusions Feline internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia rarely presents as thesole clinical sign in a referral hospital. Advanced imaging (MRI/CT) may be necessaryto reach a de?nitive diagnosis in these cases. However, abdominal ultr asound wouldbe advocated in cats with systemic clinical signs as a less expensive and less invasivediagnostic test to further investigate the possible etiology of internal ophthalmopare-sis/ophthalmoplegia prior to advanced imaging. Feline cases with internal ophthalmo-paresis/ophthalmoplegia associated with other intracranial signs and/or systemicclinical signs have a poor prognosis.