Outcome and prognostic factors in medically treated canine prostatic carcinomas: A multi-institutional study

Ravicini, S and Baines, S J and Taylor, A and Amores-Fuster, I and Mason, S L and Treggiari, E (2018) Outcome and prognostic factors in medically treated canine prostatic carcinomas: A multi-institutional study. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 16 (4). pp. 450-458.

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Abstract

Literature describing medical treatment of canine prostatic carcinoma (PC) is sparse. The aims of this study were to assess outcomes, including time to progression (TTP) and median survival time (MST), of canine PC treated with non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or chemotherapy, and to identify prognostic factors. Records from 8 institutions were searched for dogs with cytologically or histologically confirmed PC without bladder involvement: 67 dogs were included. Presenting signs were urinary (25), gastrointestinal ([GI], 11) and systemic (3); 16 dogs had GI and urinary signs, 7 dogs had systemic signs with concurrent GI or urinary signs and in 5 dogs the tumour was an incidental finding. Out of 27 dogs, 9 (33%) had positive urine culture. Metastases were identified in 26 dogs to lymph nodes (19), lungs (10), bone (2) and liver (1). Treatment included NSAIDs and chemotherapy (32), NSAIDs alone (31) and chemotherapy alone (4). The overall MST was 82 days (range 9‐752) and median TTP was 63 days (range 9‐752). Dogs receiving NSAIDs combined with chemotherapy experienced a significantly longer MST (106 vs 51 days; P = .035) and TTP (76 vs 44 days; P = .02) compared to dogs receiving NSAIDs alone. Intact dogs and those with metastatic disease had significantly shorter MST (31 vs 90 days, P = .018 and 49 vs 109 days, P = .037, respectively); intact dogs also had significantly shorter TTP (25 vs 63 days, P = .0003). This study suggests that a combination of NSAIDs and chemotherapy may improve outcomes in canine PC. Metastatic disease and being entire negatively influenced prognosis.