Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers

Harris, K A and Freidl, G S and Munoz, O S and Von Dobschuetz, S and De Nardi, M and Wieland, B and Koopmans, M P G and Staerk, K D C and Van Reeth, K and Dauphin, G and Meijer, A and De Bruin, E and Capua, I and Hill, AA and Kosmider, R and Banks, J and Stevens, K B and Van Der Werf, S and Enouf, V and Van Der Meulen, K and Brown, I H and Alexander, D J and Breed, A C and FLURISK Consortium (2017) Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers. ECOHEALTH, 14 (2). pp. 342-360.

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Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.