Hypercoagulability progresses to hypocoagulability during evolution of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in pigs

Lee, K C L and Baker, L and Mallett, S and Riddell, A and Chowdary, P and Alibhai, H I K and Chang, Y M and Priestnall, S and Stanzani, G and Davies, N and Mookerjee, R and Jalan, R and Agarwal, B (2017) Hypercoagulability progresses to hypocoagulability during evolution of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in pigs. Scientific Reports (Nature), 7 (1). p. 9347.

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Abstract

Increases in prothrombin time (PT) and international normalised ratio (INR) characterise acute liver injury (ALI) and failure (ALF), yet a wide heterogeneity in clotting abnormalities exists. This study defines evolution of coagulopathy in 10 pigs with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ALI compared to 3 Controls. APAP administration began at 0 h and continued to ‘ALF’, defined as INR >3. In APAP pigs, INR was 1.05 ± 0.02 at 0 h, 2.15 ± 0.43 at 16 h and > 3 at 18 ± 1 h. At 12 h thromboelastography (TEG) demonstrated increased clot formation rate, associated with portal vein platelet aggregates and reductions in protein C, protein S, antithrombin and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type 1 repeats–13 (ADAMTS-13) to 60%, 24%, 47% and 32% normal respectively. At 18 ± 1 h, INR > 3 was associated with: hypocoagulable TEG profile with heparin-like effect; falls in thrombin generation, Factor V and Factor VIII to 52%, 19% and 17% normal respectively; further decline in anticoagulants; thrombocytopenia; neutrophilia and endotoxemia. Multivariate analysis, found that ADAMTS-13 was an independent predictor of a hypercoagulable TEG profile and platelet count, endotoxin, Protein C and fibrinogen were independent predictors of a hypocoagulable TEG profile. INR remained normal in Controls. Dynamic changes in coagulation occur with progression of ALI: a pro-thrombotic state progresses to hypocoagulability.