What has changed in canine pyoderma? A narrative review

Loeffler, A and Lloyd, D H (2018) What has changed in canine pyoderma? A narrative review. VETERINARY JOURNAL, 235. pp. 73-82.

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Abstract

Canine pyoderma is a common presentation in small animal practice and frequently leads to prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents. A good foundation of knowledge on pyoderma was established during the 1970s and 1980s, when treatment of infection provided relatively few challenges. However, the ability to treat canine pyoderma effectively is now limited substantially by the emergence of multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and, in some countries, by restrictions on antimicrobial prescribing for pets. The threat from rising antimicrobial resistance and the zoonotic potential of MRS add a new dimension of public health implications to the management of canine pyoderma and necessitate a revisit and the search for new best management strategies. This narrative review focusses on the impact of MRS on how canine pyoderma is managed and how traditional treatment recommendations need to be updated in the interest of good antimicrobial stewardship. Background information on clinical characteristics, pathogens, and appropriate clinical and microbiological diagnostic techniques, are reviewed in so far as they can support early identification of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The potential of new approaches for the control and treatment of bacterial skin infections is examined and the role of owner education and hygiene is highlighted. Dogs with pyoderma offer opportunities for good antimicrobial stewardship by making use of the unique accessibility of the skin through cytology, bacterial culture and topical therapy. In order to achieve long term success and to limit the spread of multidrug resistance, there is a need to focus on identification and correction of underlying diseases that trigger pyoderma in order to avoid repeated treatment.