The effect of electromagnetic fields on postoperative pain and locomotor recovery in dogs with acute, severe thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion: a randomized placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial.

Zidan, N and Fenn, J and Griffith, E and Early, P and Mariani, C L and Munana, K R and Guevar, J and Olby, N J (2018) The effect of electromagnetic fields on postoperative pain and locomotor recovery in dogs with acute, severe thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion: a randomized placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial. Journal of Neurotrauma, 35 (15). ISSN 0897-7151

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Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) due to acute intervertebral disc extrusions (IVDE) is common in dogs and is treated by surgical decompression. Dogs with sensorimotor complete injuries have an incomplete recovery. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) reduce postoperative pain through anti-inflammatory effects and there is growing evidence for neuroprotective effects. This randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluated the effect of PEMF on post-operative pain and neurologic recovery in dogs with surgically treated sensorimotor complete SCI due to acute IVDE. Sixteen dogs with surgically treated complete thoracolumbar SCI were randomized to receive PEMF (15 minutes every 2 hours for 2 weeks then twice daily for 4 weeks) or placebo starting immediately after diagnosis. The primary outcome was gait score at 2 weeks. Secondary measures of gait, pain perception and proprioceptive function were evaluated at 2 and 6 weeks. Plasma GFAP concentration was measured as a SCI biomarker. Post-operative pain was quantified by measuring mechanical sensory thresholds (MST) at control and surgical sites. There was no significant difference in demographics or GFAP concentration between the 2 groups at trial entry. There was no difference in primary outcome or in secondary measures of gait, but proprioceptive placing was significantly better at 6 weeks and GFAP concentrations were significantly lower at 2 weeks in the PEMF group. MSTs were significantly higher in the PEMF treated group. We conclude that PEMF reduced incision-associated pain in dogs following surgery for IVDE and may reduce extent of spinal cord injury and enhance proprioceptive placing. Larger clinical trials are warranted.