Prospective evaluation of a protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulintreated diabetic cats to human recombinant protamine zinc insulin

Gostelow, R and Hazuchova, K and Scudder, C and Forcada, Y and Church, D B and Niessen, S J M (2018) Prospective evaluation of a protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulintreated diabetic cats to human recombinant protamine zinc insulin. JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 20 (2). pp. 114-121. ISSN 1098-612X

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Abstract

Objectives The objective was to evaluate a nadir-led protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulin suspension (PLIS)-treated diabetic cats onto human recombinant protamine zinc insulin (PZIR). Methods Recently diagnosed (<5 months) diabetic cats, treated with PLIS q12h for 6 weeks, were recruited. Fructosamine, 24 h blood glucose curve (BGC), quality of life assessment (DIAQoL-pet score) and Diabetic Clinical Score (DCS) were assessed at enrolment (PLIS-treated) and 2, 4 and 12 weeks after transitioning to PZIR (starting dose 0.2-0.7 U/kg q12h). Short duration of insulin action was defined as <9 h. Linear mixed effects modelling assessed for change in fructosamine, mean blood glucose (MBG) during BGCs, DIAQoL-pet score, DCS and q12h insulin dose. McNemar's tests compared the proportion of cats with hypoglycaemia at week 0 (PLIS-treated) and week 4 (PZIR-treated). Results Twenty-two cats were recruited. Median PLIS dose at enrolment was 0.5 U/kg (interquartile range 0.3-0.7 U/kg) q12h, equalling median PZIR starting dose (0.5 U/kg; interquartile range 0.3-0.7 U/kg q12h). Transitioning was followed by significant decreases in fructosamine (P = 0.00007), insulin dose (P = 0.02), DCS (P = 8.1 x 10(-8)) and DIAQoL-pet score (P = 0.003), indicating improved quality of life. MBG did not alter significantly (P = 0.1). Five cats (22.7%) achieved remission. Hypoglycaemia was recorded in 30/190 12 h BGCs (15.8%) and five cats experienced clinical hypoglycaemia. The proportion of cats with hypoglycaemia did not differ between PLIS (week 0) and PZIR (week 4) (P = 1.0). Duration of action was analysed in 19 cats. Six cats (31.6%) showed short duration of action on PLIS, compared with two cats (10.5%) after 4 weeks on PZIR. All six cats with short PLIS duration showed duration of 9 h on PZIR. Conclusions and relevance Used alongside a low-carbohydrate diet, transitioning to PZIR was associated with significantly improved clinical signs and quality of life, with some cats achieving remission. Transition to PZIR should be considered for cats with short duration of action on PLIS.