Corneal and anterior segment foreign body trauma in dogs: a review of 218 cases

Tetas, R and Riera, M M and Newton, R and Donaldson, D (2016) Corneal and anterior segment foreign body trauma in dogs: a review of 218 cases. VETERINARY OPHTHALMOLOGY, 19 (5). pp. 386-397.

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Abstract

Objectives To review clinical data on dogs that suffered a corneal and anterior segment foreign body (CASFB) trauma and to determine the risk factors for foreign body (FB) trauma and subsequent enucleation. Animals studied Dogs with CASFB presented to the Animal Health Trust (AHT) from January 2000 to December 2012. Procedures Clinical data for CASFB cases were compared to those available for the remaining AHT ophthalmic population over the same period. The depth of the FB trauma was divided into five categories. The type of FB and method of removal were described for each category. The degree of secondary uveitis and lens involvement was graded and correlated with subsequent enucleation. Results The mean age (standard deviation) of 218 identified CASFB cases was 3.96 (2.95) years. Risk factors for CASFB trauma were dogs younger than 5 years, English Springer Spaniels, Labrador Retrievers, and working dogs. Most dogs required general anesthesia for FB removal, and hypodermic needles were the most commonly used instrument. The lens was involved in some cases with a full-thickness CASFB trauma (n = 49, 45%), but most suffered a minor lens trauma (n = 37, 76%). The lens trauma and phacoclastic uveitis were managed medically in most dogs (n = 37, 76%), and phacoemulsification was only elected as initial treatment in some dogs (n = 10, 20%). Enucleation was required overall in 6% of dogs. Statistically significant associations were found between enucleation and depth of FB trauma, degree of uveitis, and severity of lens trauma (P < 0.001). Conclusions Young dogs, English Springer Spaniels, Labrador Retrievers, and working dogs had an increased risk of CASFB trauma. Risk factors for enucleation were fullthickness FB penetration, severe lens trauma, and severe uveitis.