Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guidelines for differentiation between thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions and intervertebral disk protrusions in dogs

De Decker, S and Gomes, S A and Packer, R M A and Kenny, P J and Beltran, E and Parzefall, B and Fenn, J T and Nair, D and Nye, G and Volk, H A (2016) Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guidelines for differentiation between thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions and intervertebral disk protrusions in dogs. VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND, 57 (5). pp. 526-533.

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Abstract

Four MRI variables have recently been suggested to be independently associated with a diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion. Midline intervertebral disk herniation, and partial intervertebral disk degeneration were associated with intervertebral disk protrusion, while presence of a single intervertebral disk herniation and disk material dispersed beyond the boundaries of the intervertebral disk space were associated with intervertebral disk extrusion. The aim of this retrospective, cross‐sectional study was to determine whether using these MRI variables improves differentiation between thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions and protrusions. Eighty large breed dogs with surgically confirmed thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions or protrusions were included. Randomized MRI studies were presented on two occasions to six blinded observers, which were divided into three experience categories. During the first assessment, observers made a presumptive diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion without guidelines. During the second assessment they were asked to make a presumptive diagnosis with the aid of guidelines. Agreement was evaluated by Kappa‐statistics. Diagnostic accuracy significantly improved from 70.8 to 79.6% and interobserver agreement for making a diagnosis of intervertebral disk extrusion or intervertebral disk protrusion improved from fair (κ = 0.27) to moderate (κ = 0.41) after using the proposed guidelines. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly influenced by degree of observer experience. Intraobserver agreement for the assessed variables ranged from fair to excellent and interobserver agreement ranged from fair to moderate. The results of this study suggest that the proposed imaging guidelines can aid in differentiating thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions from protrusions.