Calculating luminous flux and lighting levels for domesticated mammals and birds

Saunders, J E and Jarvis, J R and Wathes, C M (2008) Calculating luminous flux and lighting levels for domesticated mammals and birds. Animal, 2 (6). pp. 921-932.

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This paper considers whether photometric calculations using standard human spectral sensitivity data are satisfactory for applications with other species or whether it would be worthwhile to use bespoke spectral sensitivity functions for each species or group of species. Applications include the lighting of interior areas and the design of photometers. Published spectral sensitivity data for a number of domesticated animals (human, turkey, duck, chicken, cat, rat and mouse) were used to calculate lighting levels for each species and compared with those derived from standard CIE human photopic and scotopic functions. Calculations were made for spectral power distributions of daylight, incandescent light and 12 fluorescent sources commonly used to light interiors. The calculated lighting levels showed clear differences between species and the standard human. Assuming that the resulting effects on retinal illuminance determine the overall perception of the level of light, there may be applications where these differences are important. However, evidence is also presented that the magnitude of these inter-species effects are similar to, or smaller than, those arising from other optical, physiological and psychological factors, which are also likely to influence the resulting perception. It is also important to recognise that lighting-related parameters such as the good colour rendering of surfaces, the avoidance of glare from lamps and other factors that may be species related are sometimes of greater importance than the lighting levels. Our results suggest that a judicial choice of three spectral sensitivity functions would satisfy most circumstances. Firstly, where the overall sensitivity is maximal in the medium to long wavelengths, the standard CIE photopic function will suffice, chicken, turkey and duck fall in this category. Secondly, in a small number of cases where the sensitivity centres on the short to medium wavelengths, the CIE scotopic function should be used, e.g. for the scotopic cat, photopic rat and photopic mouse. Finally, where an animal is also sensitive to the UV region of the spectrum and there is a significant component of UV radiation, then an additional measure of the UV response should be included, as for the photopic rat and photopic mouse.